Marketing techniques has been developed through online and yet telecasting selling companies has introduced a new issue to society, i.e. , compulsive purchasing ( Roberts and Jones, 2001 ) . This phenomenon among pupils is being concerned because of a lifting figure of adolescents maladaptive preoccupation with purchasing or shopping or frequent purchasing points that are non needed or can non afforded or shopping for longer period clip than intended. This phenomenon is called compulsive purchasing behaviour.
This is based on the recent survey confirmed through empirical observation that phenomenon of compulsive purchasing is intensifying ( Neuner, Raab, and Reisch, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to the recent survey which is conducted in Canada ( d’Astous, Maltais, and Roberge, 1990 ) indicate that compulsive purchasing jobs are present in the adolescent consumer population.
Harmonizing to Kraeplin ( 1915 ) and Bleuer ( 1930 ) , compulsive purchasing was first described in the clinical and the psychiatric literature in the beginning of the twentieth century in which compulsive purchasing behaviour besides known as ‘Oniomania ‘ . As defined in Encyclopedia, Oniomania is the scientific term for the compulsive desire to shop, frequently known as compulsive purchasing, compulsive shopping, shopping craving or shopaholism.
Over the past decennary, involvement in compulsive purchasing upset has increased, possibly due to increasing involvement in the future obsessive-compulsive spectrum upset ( Black, 2001 ) .
Harmonizing to Eric and Andrea ( 2006, October ) , approximately 5.8 % of the U.S population are compulsive purchaser. While harmonizing to a survey which conducted by University of Chicago Press Journals ( 2008, September ) suggests that compulsive purchasing may impact more consumers than antecedently demonstrated. This survey suggests that every bit many as 8.9 % of the population can be classified as compulsive purchaser. This proved that compulsive purchasing behaviour widens about every twenty-four hours, with the recent research, surveies, and studies related to compulsive purchasing published in Canada, Mexico, and Brazil, most of the states of Western Europe, Israel, Australia, South Korea, and now even China.
There are a batch of researches about compulsive purchasing implicate that there are many causes that contribute to do this phenomenon happened. For case, harmonizing to Valence, d’Astous and Fortier ( 1988 ) , they consider household, familial, situational, and biological factors and anxiousness as the factors that lead to the visual aspect of compulsive purchasing behaviour. While based on the attack of Scherhorn, Reisch and Raab ( 1990 ) , Edwards ( 1992 ) , and Cole ( 1995 ) , the function of the household and personality traits are one of the factors that lead to the development of compulsive purchasing behaviour.
Besides that, consumer scientific discipline research workers have been concentrating on the characteristic and the old conditions of compulsive purchasing, such as holding a more compulsive personality, lower ego regard, and more intensely fantasy life than normal consumers ( Faber and O’Guinn, 1992 ; Lee, Lenno, and Rudd, 2000: O’Guinn and Faber, 1989 ; Valence, d’Asous, and Fortier, 1988 ) .
1.1.1 Factors Influencing the Consumer ‘s Compulsive Buying Behavior
Based on old research, there are a batch of factors that can lend to the visual aspect of this phenomenon. Hence, this survey will concentrate on the few factors that contribute to the visual aspect of compulsive purchasing behaviour among pupils i.e. , self-esteem, mercenary value and attitude towards money ( power, anxiousness and misgiving ) among pupils to look into the relationship between the factors and the compulsive purchasing behaviour.
Compulsive purchaser ever have stronger emotional that related to purchasing motive, such as they will purchase things uncontrolled when they are in the status of low self-esteem or negative temper. It has been found out that compulsive purchasing inclinations are significantly negatively related to an person ‘s self-esteem. DeSarbo and Edwards ( 1996 ) province that hapless self-pride is correlated with compulsive purchasing behaviour. This implies that persons, who use purchasing to counterbalance for their self-esteem, are more prone to develop compulsive purchasing behaviour. Chang and Arkin ( 2002 ) found that people with low self-prides and market diffidence are evidently eager consumers.
Belk ( 1985 ) states that old research has shown that compulsive purchasers scored significantly higher on philistinism subscales. Watson ( 2003 ) found that mercenary people tended to be more likely to pass money, more likely to show positive attitude towards borrowing money for luxury purchases than were less mercenary people.
Attitude towards money
Yamauchi and Templer ( 1982 ) defined that money attitude of power-prestige, misgiving, and anxiousness is closely related to compulsive purchasing. There are entire of five constituent which being included in this graduated table, which are power-prestige ( usage of money to influence and impress ) , retention-time ( money behaviours necessitating planning and readying for the hereafter ) , misgiving ( uncertainty and misgiving associated with money minutess ) , anxiousness ( an attitude that money is a cause of anxiousness every bit good as a cause of protection from anxiousness ) , and quality ( buying quality merchandises as a chief behaviour. Roberts and Jones ( 2001 ) explained that the undermentioned research has focused on power, anxiousness and misgiving because of their convergence in the major money attitude research of both Furham and Yamauchi.
1.1.2 Significant difference between gender and compulsive purchasing behaviour
Gender does look to be a major factor. A old survey found that bulk of compulsive purchasers is female ( Faber 1992 ; O’Guinn and Faber 1989 ; Scherhorn, Reisch, and Raab 1990 ) . In contrast, Roberts and Tanner ( 2000 ) argue that they are failed to happen any gender differences on a survey among striplings. Thus, some research workers question gender differences are an artefact created because males are less likely to do known their debatable behaviours ( Faber and O’Guinn 1992 ; Roberts 1998 ) . For this ground, sing the inquiry affecting the gender differences, gender will be one of the variables which will be focused on this survey excessively.
1.2 Problem Statement
Young people are the parents, decision-makers, concern people and the leaders of tomorrow. Behavior termed compulsive purchasing in clinical literature ; has started to pull research notice ( Black, 2004 ; Dittmar, 2004a ; Faber, 2004 ) . Hence, due to the turning figure of people involved in uncontrolled, inordinate purchasing, this has lead to psychological unhappiness and serious effects on persons ‘ lives, such as debt ( Benson, 2000 ; Dittmar, 2004b ) . Furthermore, a recent survey confirmed through empirical observation that phenomenon of compulsive purchasing is intensifying ( Neuner, Raab, and Reisch, 2005 ) .
Presents, adolescents are still easy being influenced by all sorts of factors. As a people who are concern about the hereafter of the adolescents, they need to happen out the root cause of finding this compulsive purchasing behaviour among adolescents and seek to turn to this job. Therefore, the life of development of the adolescents will be perfect in the hereafter because they realize the factor which causes the forming of this behaviour.
This survey is being carried out to look into the influence of three selected factors i.e. , self-esteem, mercenary value and attitude towards money ( power, anxiousness and misgiving ) among pupils which contribute to compulsive purchasing behaviour. In add-on, this survey is besides aimed to the difference of male and female pupils in their compulsive purchasing behaviour.
Therefore, based on the scenario and job discussed before, this survey attempts to reply the undermentioned inquiries:
How does self-esteem influence pupil ‘s compulsive purchasing behaviour?
Is there any relationship between mercenary value and compulsive purchasing behaviour?
Does attitude towards money ( power, anxiousness and misgiving ) have an impact on compulsive purchasing behaviour?
Make male and female pupils differ in their compulsive purchasing behaviour?
1.3 Significant of the Study
Young people are the hereafter of tomorrow. As a recent survey confirmed through empirical observation that compulsive purchasing is on the addition ( Neuner el al. , 2005 ) , therefore it is a demand to undergo this survey to look into the relationship of the three selected factors which contribute to compulsive purchasing behaviour among pupils, and gender differences in compulsive purchasing behaviour. The important of the survey can be viewed from assorted positions.
From consumer position, consumer can derive a batch of information about compulsive purchasing behaviour that they may ne’er hear before. They can cognize the factors which contribute to this compulsive purchasing behaviour and can heighten the cognition of this sort behaviour. Hence, they will be more concern about this turning issue particularly among adolescents which are easy influenced by the environment.
From marketer position, compulsive purchasing behaviour will hike up the economic system of our state and at the same clip, sellers can derive a batch of net incomes due to this issue. This is because in the seller ‘s head set, net income maximization is the chief ends that they want to accomplish.
From non-government organisation ‘s ( NGO ) position, they have be more patient on educating and turn toing this societal behaviour compulsive purchasing among society particularly adolescents because uncontrolled and inordinate purchasing will take to others societal related jobs for case fiscal jobs, heavier recognition card use and so on.
1.4 Aims of the Study
1.4.1 General Objective
This survey aims to look into compulsive purchasing behaviour among University Tunku Abdul Rahman ( UTAR ) Students.
1.4.2 Specific Aims
1 ) To analyze the influence of self-pride on pupil ‘s compulsive purchasing behaviour.
. 2 ) To look into the relationship between mercenary value and compulsive purchasing behaviour.
3 ) To find the consequence of attitude towards money ( power, anxiousness and misgiving ) on compulsive purchasing behaviour.
4 ) To distinguish compulsive purchasing behaviour among male and female pupils.
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
Holmium: There is no important relationship between self-pride and compulsive purchasing behaviour.
Holmium: There is no important relationship between mercenary value and compulsive purchasing behaviour.
Holmium: There is no important relationship between attitude towards money ( power, anxiousness, and misgiving ) and compulsive purchasing behaviour.
Holmium: There is no important difference in compulsive purchasing between male and female pupils.
1.6 Restrictions of the Study
The current survey is merely focused on the pupils of University Tunku Abdul Rahman ( UTAR ) at Kampar, Perak. In this survey, sample size is one of the restrictions. The sample size is relatively little as it merely limited to the pupils who go into library of University Tunku Abdul Rahman ( UTAR ) Kampar, Perak. Hence, the survey is difficult to stand for the whole population of pupils. Besides that, this survey can non stipulate to all the pupils in University Tunku Abdul Rahman ( UTAR ) because there are merely 100 pupils will be selected as the sample of the survey.
The truthfulness of the survey is based on the honestness of the respondents when they fill in the information in the questionnaire. In contrast, the misinterpretation of the respondents towards the inquiries might act upon the dependability and cogency of the consequence.
Subsequently, clip and power that can be used by the research workers are limited.
1.7 Research Framework
This survey consists of two independent variables ( factors act uponing compulsive purchasing behaviour and gender ) and one dependant variable ( compulsive purchasing behaviour ) .
Factors act uponing compulsive purchasing behaviour
Attitude towards money
Compulsive Buying Behavior
Figure 1: Research Model
1.8 Definition of Terminology
The conceptual and operational definitions of the chief key footings are as shown below:
1.8.1 Compulsive Buying Behavior
Conceptual: Compulsive purchasing behaviour is defined as “ chronic, cyclical buying that becomes a primary response to negative feeling ” ( O ‘ Guinn and Faber, 1989 ) .
Operational: Compulsive purchasing behaviour in this survey is refers to excessive, uncontrolled frequent purchasing points that are non needed or can non afford which addicted by pupils.
Conceptual: Self-esteem is a term used in psychological science to reflect a individual ‘s overall rating of his or her ain worth. Self-esteem includes point of view and emotions such as victory, depression, satisfaction and embarrassment ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) .
Operational: Self-esteem in this survey is refers to the pupils positive or negative attitude towards himself or herself and rating of his or her ain worth.
1.8.3 Materialistic value
Conceptual: Highly mercenary value people believes that the acquisition of stuff goods is a cardinal life end, premier index of success, and cardinal to happiness and self-definition ( Richins, 2004 ) .
Operational: Materialistic value in this survey is refers to mercenary value among pupils in which can be achieved by acquisitioning material goods to carry through ain satisfaction.
1.8.4 Attitude towards money
Conceptual: There are of sum of five constituent which is being included in attitude towards money, which are power-prestige ( usage of money to influence and impress ) , retention-time ( money behaviours necessitating planning and readying for the hereafter ) , misgiving ( uncertainty and misgiving linked with money minutess ) , anxiousness ( an attitude that money is a cause of anxiousness every bit good as a cause of protection from anxiousness ) , and quality ( buying quality merchandises as a chief behaviour ( Yamauchi and Templer, 1982 ) . Roberts and Jones ( 2001 ) explained that the undermentioned research has focused on power, anxiousness and misgiving because of their convergence in the major money attitude research of both Furham and Yamauchi.
Operational: Attitude towards money in this survey refers to the three constituents which are power, anxiousness and misgiving which have been explained by Roberts and Jones at the old research.