The phenomenon of power is the major apparent fact of human being. The fact, that some people obtain power over others, is obvious. Therefore, the construct of power is ancient and were ubiquitous than any societal theory. The ageless line of great names originating from Plato and Aristotle, through Machiavelli and Hobbes to Pareto and Weber illustrates important attending to the construct of power ( Dahl 1957, p.201 ) .
Additionally to the geographical and cultural variegations, there is an being of economic and political differences between the states. The disagreements are ascertained when the developed and developing states are compared. The being of assorted factors explains the multiplicity discrepancies among the states and gives the account why some states obtain the power to act upon other states, in peculiar.
2.1. The Concept of Power
Despite the fact that power has been much debated by bookmans of different subjects, there is still no alone definition of it. Harmonizing to Oxford dictionary power is defined as ‘the capacity or ability to direct or act upon the behaviour of others or the class of events’ ( Oxford Dictionary ) . Harmonizing to Cambridge lexicon, it is ‘ ability to command people and events ’ ( Cambridge lexicon ) . In general, power denotes the ability of societal agents to act upon one another. Thereby, it can be formulated as the unequal dealingss between two or more agents within a societal context, when one or several agents dominate over others ( Schutz 1999 ) .
There are several attacks to grok the construct of power. Harmonizing to Karl Marx, power defines the economic dealingss of societal agents in the industrial society based on the economic activity, so power is based on category domination ( Marchionatti 1998, p.155 ) . The converse to the Karl Marx’s thought, Max Weber differentiates economic sciences and political relations: economic activity demonstrates one’s ability to fulfill public-service corporation demands, while political activity demonstrates power and domination. He defines power as the ability of an person or a group to accomplish their ain ends and purposes while others are forestalling them from the execution ( Bendix and Roth 1971, p.272-277 ) . The presentation of these two attacks of comprehension of the power denotes that there are assorted theories of power and several constructs of its execution. Therefore, it is questionable whether power well is, or wholly non, absent from economic sciences. Harmonizing to Marx, political relations is the addendum, or deflected signifier of power where province has a map of go-between and the power are gained wholly by economic sciences. Conversely, the mainstream of economic sciences denotes power as wholly political one, while perfectly absent in economic sciences.
Economic power trades with economic concentration of the state, which is based on the procedure of belongings appropriation and accretion of capital in the state. In market economic system power belongs to public and private establishments ( Schutz 199, p.245 ) . In a specific market, economic agents obtain the control over decision-making procedure and therefore can get the control over the market. Therefore, it can trip the creative activity of a market signifier of domination of somewhat figure of Sellerss, which would ensue in oligopoly or a monopoly. Economic power can be considered as the contemplation of market power which is based on assorted societal domains.
2.2. The Current Implementation of Economic Power in the Middle East Region
National sovereignty belongs to a province, hence, the power is concentrated in the state’s custodies. However, there is the multiplicity of factors which can reassign it. Economic and political power coincides, when it comes to the power of MNCs.
Since the terminal of Cold War and prior to the 11Thursdayof September 2001, the chief power was considered to be economic power. The USA was recognized as the economic world power and hence some bookmans argued that the USA would for good obtain this place. But the inquiry is whether the economic super power is equal to the biggest economic system in the universe ( Cooper 2003 ) , and whether the economic world power possesses the power to command other provinces. In comparing with the military power, where the control and influence are gained by agencies of difficult power, economic power represents soft power and distributes the influence by economic agents. The times of difficult power, when ‘force will be met by force’ ( Khrushchev 1961 ) are gone. Politicss has changed and the construct of power as good.
Recently, power is dynamic, due to the transmutations in planetary economic system, IR, engineerings and inventions ( Nye 2011 ) . However, the chief issue is non to specify the construct of power itself, but to show its comparison. Surely, it is a fact that Stalin was more powerful than Roosevelt in legion ways, that McCarthy was less powerful after his disapprobation in Senate than before it, and so on. Whereas, there are no individual step to mix disagreements in range due to the alteration in chances. It appears that there is an absence of a satisfying method for doing a comparing. If one considers a few variables, the responses connected with the actions of few histrions compared are indistinguishable, so it is rational to denote that the power of A is greater than the power of B, in instance if the reaction associated with the action of A are greater that the reaction associated with the action of B ( Dahl 1957, p.205-209 ) .
Though the USA possesses less influence over the national economic systems of developing states are less powerful now in the Middle East part than a few decennaries ago, while the European Union has less influence to the economic state of affairs of the developing states than a century ago. Harmonizing to Joseph Nye, the Unites States has lost some power, nevertheless, presently rediscovers how to recover the old place in the universe by using smart power, which is the combination of difficult and soft power ( Nye 2011 ) .
Another phase of reassigning power of developed to developing states has been elapsed. Harmonizing to the World Bank, the exports from developing to developing states exceed exports from these states to developed 1s. In 2002 the exports from developing to developing states was 40 per cent, the remainder was exports to the developed 1s. In 2012 it was divided equally, and by 2013 a larger portion of export from developing states went to developing 1s. However, the economic systems of developing states are still and all dependant on the economic systems of the developed 1s ( ‘For hapless states, other hapless states matter more than rich ones’ 2013 ) .
To reason, since the terminal of Cold War geopolitics has been replaced by geo-economics and the economic power has obtained the important function in universe political relations. A legion figure of bookmans, political relations and economic experts have debated on the issue whether economic or military power is the chief one ( Nye 2011, p.51-81 ) . However, the current state of affairs in the universe demonstrates that power is non inactive and the dominant place can switch.