* WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROCLAMATION OF THE PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE IN 1898? The significance of the proclamation of the Philippine independence is that the Philippines is finally free from the 333 years rule of the Spaniards. As we all know, the Spaniards colonized the country for the longest time. The Filipino people definitely wanted to be freed for the Spaniards and eventually their sense of nationalism has finally awakened. Many revolts and uprisings occurred during the Spanish occupation, but unfortunately they all failed.
Even though there are also other foreign countries who colonized the Philippines after the Spaniards, we can still consider the Proclamation of Philippine Independence in 1898 a very significant one because finally the Filipinos we’re able to free themselves from the almost endless rule of the Spaniards. * IS THE SEPARATION OF THE CHURCH AND STATE NECESSARY? WHY? It is necessary for the church and state to be separated because there are issues in our country that cannot be decided by both parties at once.
As we all know, the state would agree or implement something that they think will be good for the country, while the church’s priority is the catholic religion and something that opposes the religion, whether it will be for the good of our country, they will never consider. There’s no was church and state can be combined, because definitely there will be a lot of conflicts. For example, the issue about the RH law. The state wanted to implement it because we must control our growing population, while the church opposes it because as they said, it is against the catholic morals.
CHAPTER 7 – THE AMERICAN RULE * WHAT ARE THE REASONS BEHIND THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR [1899-1906] It is because soon after the surrender of the Spanish authorities, the Americans announced the founding of a military government which the Filipino leaders did not recognize. President McKinley issued a policy of Benevolent Assimilation. It says that Americans would take care of the safety, peace, and progress of the nation through a military government. But in truth, the policy stressed that the authority if the Americans must gain widespread control all over the country by means of force.
The plan was for the military head in the United States to inform the Filipinos that the end of the Spanish rule was also the beginning of the American occupation. * WHAT WERE THE CULTURAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE AMERICANS TO THE FILIPINOS? American Influences can still be seen in the country’s system of education, literature, art, architecture, science, industry, home, food, clothes, religion, pastimes, music and dances. Filipinos took education seriously which resulted to the high social status of some Filipinos. The Filipinos learned how to read, speak and write English in a short matter of time.
The free exchange of goods between the United Stated and the Philippines ended when the U. S. Congress approved the Tydings-Mcduffie Law. Through the Homestead Act, the right to own any civil land up to 24 hectares was given to any Filipino. The Protestant religion was accepted by the Filipinos. The social status of Filipino Women during the American period. They were allowed to participate in politics, to work in the government, and to pursue their studies in college. Matters like health and cleanliness were improved.
Transportation and communication in the Philippines were developed. HOW DID THE MILITARY GROUPS ON THE COUNTRY OPERATE DURING THE AMERICAN ADMINISTRATION? Militant peasant and workers’ groups were formed during the U. S. occupation despite the repressive situation. A movement for Philippine independence, involving diverse groups, continued throughout the occupation. A Commonwealth government was established in 1935 to allow limited self-rule but this was interrupted by the Second World War and the Japanese occupation. The guerilla movement against Japanese fascism was led mainly by socialists and communists, known by their acronym, HUKS. CHAPTER 8 – COMMONWEALTH * HOW DID PRESIDENT MANUEL L.
QUEZON IMPLEMENT THE SOCIAL JUSTICE PROGRAM UNDER HIS ADMINISTRATION? President Quezon sought to achieve social justice by protecting the rights of laborers through legislation and personal projects, and by creating more jobs for the common man. He believed that work is the measure of a man therefore man must be allowed to improve his lot and the government must help him. He empowered the disenfranchised: women were given the right to vote, tenants a chance to own land, laborers protection from ill working conditions. He put in place an effective educational system and provided the poor with knowledge and skills to better themselves.
He strove to protect our country from dangerous class wars, a danger that persists to this day. He envisioned a country united despite differences in social class and creed, and a time when this campaign for social justice would no longer be necessary. He appealed to each Filipino’s moral impulse to protect his fellowman. * DISCUSS THE GRUESOME PICTURE OF THE PHILIPPINES DURING WORLD WAR II? During the war, it was an ordinary scene to see people evacuating from one place to another. Usually from big cities (like Manila), they went to the mountains or provinces where they knew they were safe from the enemies.
Filipinos learned to be helpful and resourceful. They built temporary houses for every family and they organized themselves to keep each one safe. Some Filipinos, who were discovered being a member of some militant group, we’re captured and killed. Because there is also a scarcity of food during the war, many people die of hunger and thirst. CHAPTER 9 – JAPANESE INVASION * HOW DID THE JAPANESE MILITARY RULE THE COUNTRY BEFORE AND AFTER THE INAUGURATION OF THE SECOND PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC? During the Japanese occupation in the Philippines, they made life difficult for the people.
They issued many rules which they enforced with harshness. Violation meant a slapping from the Japanese soldiers, arrest, torture, or worse, death. The Japanese army simply took from the Filipinos whatever it needed, especially food, which was already getting scarce. People suspected of being guerillas were picked up, tortured and executed. After the inauguration of the Second Philippine Republic on October 14, 1943, the Philippine Executive Commission ceased to exist. The Japanese Military Administration was withdrawn. * WHY DID A NUMBER OF FILIPINOS JOIN THE GUERILLA MOVEMENT AGAINST THE JAPANESE?
It is because majority of the Filipinos were not enticed by the Japanese propaganda of “Philippines for the Filipinos! ”. They did not believe the Japanese program of Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Instead, many of them joined the guerillas in the mountains. They were American and Filipino forces who organized their own guerilla groups which were widespread in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The citizens secretly helped them by giving the guerillas confidential information that was later forwarded to MacArthur through the radio. * HOW DID THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC END?
The surrender of the Empire of Japan on September 2, 1945, brought the hostilities of the war to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy was incapable of conducting operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, the Empire of Japan’s leaders were privately making entreaties to the neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms favorable to the Japanese. The Soviets, meanwhile, were preparing to attack the Japanese, in fulfillment of their promises to the United States and the United Kingdom made at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences.
The Japanese surrendered to the Americans after the Americans dropped an atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This is also the end of the Japanese Colonization in the Philippines. CHAPTER 10 – THE REPUBLIC * HOW DOES ARROYO GOVERNMENT COMBAT TERRORISM IN THE COUNTRY? During the Arroyo administration, the nation’s peace and order was to a large extent, rooted in the insurgency in Mindanao staged by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), the communist insurgency n several parts of the country undertaken by the New People’s Army (NPA) and the terrorist activities of the Abu Sayyaf Group in Mindanao.
To help end the MILF and NPA insurgencies, former President Arroyo vigorously pushed for the holding of peace negotiations between the government and the two rebel groups. By the year 2003, progress had been achieved towards the holdings of peace negotiations in Europe with the National Democratic Front. Similar progress was achieved in the holding of peace talks in Malaysia between the government and the MILF. * EXPLAIN THE CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE MILLLENIUM CURRICULUM IN THE ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS The Makabayan subject was introduced in 2002 as part of the Revised Basic Education Curriculum.
Makabayan is considered as one of the five key learning areas in the newly-revised curriculum. The other four are English, Filipino, Science, and Mathematics. Public schools are required to teach the subject, but private schools were given the freedom to integrate it into their own curriculum or not, according to the needs of their students. Teachers of the component subjects of Makabayan are asked to teach the components separately. Each Makabayan subject, except for values education, is taught for one hour daily for four days a week, or a total of 240 minutes a week. * WHAT DOES THE FOURTH WORLD MEETING OF FAMILIES TELL US?
The Fourth World Meeting of Families will have two congresses; one is the International Theological and Pastoral Congress (ITPC), which is a main feature of such World Meetings. This will involve a study and exposition of various topics related to the theme to be facilitated by experts and theologians and representative families from various countries. The conference dwelled extensively on the Holy Father’s Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Asia and other documents of the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences as they relate to the theme, “The Christian Family: Good News for the Third Millennium. “
The theme for the Congress and Meeting was “The Christian Family: Good News for the Third Millennium,” which has been chosen by the pope. This was a good them for the event since the role and mission of the different members of the family face increasing difficulties and sometimes confusion, on account of rapid social change and new pressures and threats. Indeed, the family is not just the object of the Church’s evangelization efforts but is also recognized as one of the vital agents of evangelization. It is especially through the family that our civilization can truly embody the values and truths of the Gospel.
INSIGHTS: The effects of the colonization in the Philippines has a very big impact, not only during the times of the colonization, but until the present day as well. The effects are long term, and even though the Philippines is now free from any foreign invader, we can say that the country isn’t totally “free”. The colonizer’s influence stays with us, to the extent that our own culture has been covered-up by their culture already. Under the influence of Spain, colonization had a generally negative impact on the Philippines.
The Spanish unsuccessfully tried to unite the territory, bringing Western influences such as the Gregorian calendar and western printing. However, The idea of forcing Western culture upon the indigenous people failed. The Spanish also brought foreign diseases to the Filipinos, like smallpox and leprosy. Finally, while under Spanish rule, the Philippines became part of the Spanish monarchy. Other countries refused to trade with the Philippines because of this. There was one thing that was successful in Spanish colonization – the influence of the Spanish language.
Once the Filipinos were introduced to the Spanish language, they started using it and for a while it became the official language of the Philippines, before being changed back to Tagalog. Similarly, the American colonization of the Philippines was a bad thing for the territory and its people. The United States essentially helped the Philippines gain independence from Spain, and then turned on them – thus colonizing the territory – because they believed the Philippines were too weak to rise against the American military.
To the United States, the Philippines were not essential to political stability. They could keep the islands, or give them back to Spain. The Americans did nothing but hold the Philippines hostage – not really enforcing the Amercian culture upon the Filipinos, yet holding the right to do whatever they wanted to the Philippines, such as invading the islands, which happened multiple times. The arrival of the Japanese caused tremendous fear, hardships and suffering among the Filipinos. The Filipino way of life was greatly affected during the Japanese period.
The Filipinos lost their freedom of speech and expression. The development of art was also stopped. Filipinos greatly feared the “zoning”. There were Filipinos spies hired by the Japanese to point those who were suspected of being part of the guerilla movement. The Japanese made some changes in the system of education. They also made the teaching of their native language “Nihonggo” a mandatory to all schools. To all the countries that colonized us, I can say that the Japanese occupation brought us almost no influence at all, mainly because they just stayed in the country for about 3 years.