Inflammation and Immunity Case Study

            From the case study, it is clear that Mr. Seiler’s problem has some hypoxic component because the tissues around the wounded area are not getting enough oxygen hence the continued deterioration.

Hypoxia injury occurs when flow of blood into the brain is interfered with thus preventing the brain from performing its normal duties.  According to studies by University of Iowa Department of Pathology, it is brought about by a hypixicischemic injury, cardiac arrest or by acute hemorrhage.  Main symptoms of this condition include memory loss, anomia, visual impairment, lack of coordination, apraxia, trembling and general body weakness.  This disease may lead to complications such as schizophrenia, seizures, cerebral palsy among other mental disorders.

            Irreversible cell injury occurs when the cell and cell organelles disintegrate and rapture, then cytotoxic edema resolves as interstitial edema develops.  At this point, the intracellular cells components become extracellular and the forces which control diffusion are reduced resulting in neuronal death.

            Mr. Seiler has the following cardiac signs dolor(pain), tumor(swelling), calor(heat) and rubor(redness). These four cardinal signs come as a result release of pharmacologically active substances by the body such as histamine.

            Mast cells are sensitive cells found among ordinary connective tissues and they are responsible for initiating acute inflammation after an injury.  They release substances which trigger inflammation such as histamine and cytokines.  The main phases of inflammation include acute vascular response, acute cellular response, chronic cellular response and then resolution.

            A ‘shift to the left’ refers to an increase in number of the less mature forms of White Blood Cells and in their precursor (bands and segs) when one is attacked by primitive forms of diseases like inflammations in relation to the mature ones (Robbins, 1999).  From Mr. Seiler’s laboratory results, it shows that the number of immature WBCs have sharply increased as well as the precursors.

Word count: 312.


Robbins, C. (1999).  Pathologic Basis of Disease: Cell injury and Necrosis.  U. S: W.  B.  Saunders             Publishers.

Histopathology. University of Iowa Department of Pathology. Available on

            <<http://www. siumed. edu/~dking2/intro/inflam. htm>> Retrieved on 01/09/08.


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