The article is about the difference between the perceptions of mentors and their protégés in the level of success that the protégés were achieving in business based on the mentor’s support. In the article, a t-test was used to determine if there was a significant difference between the numbers of observed business successes that the mentors recorded from their interaction with their protégés to the numbers of successes that their protégés perceived they were able to actually accomplish. A paired t-test was used and each mentor was paired with his or her protégé. A t-test a hypothesis test used when it is sought to determine whether there is a significance difference between the means of two quantitative data. In particular, a paired t-test is used when specific elements in one group have corresponding elements in another group. Based on the findings, the mentor’s ratings were higher than their protégés’ ratings, and this difference was found to be significant by the paired t-test at a 95% confidence level. This means that the test was able to establish that the mentors believe that they were doing their protégés more help than the protégés actually perceive.


Waters, L., McCabe, M., Kiellerup, D., and Kiellerup, S. (2004). “The Role of Formal Mentoring on Business Success and Self-Esteem in Participants of a New Business Start-Up Program.” Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(1):107-121, Retrieved November 17, 2008 from:


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