Menelaus was a king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and a central figure in the Trojan War. He was the son of Atreus and Aerope, brother of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and, according to the Iliad, leader of the Spartan contingent of the Greek army during the War. Prominent in both the Iliad and Odyssey, Menelaus was also popular in Greek vase painting and Greek tragedy; the latter more as a hero of the Trojan War than as a member of the doomed House of Atreus.
Menelaus fought bravely at Troy, although he did not occupy as important a position as his brother Agamemnon, who was the commander-in-chief of the Greek forces. At one point he agreed to settle the conflict by single combat with Paris, but Aphrodite interfered to prevent the duel from being decisive, and Athene prompted a resumption of hostilities. During his return from Troy, Menelaus’ ships were becalmed on the island of Pharos, near Egypt. In order to discover what he should do to obtain fair winds for the journey, Menelaus had to consult Proteus, the old man of the sea.
He waited until Proteus had gone to sleep among his herd of seals and then seized him tightly. Proteus changed into many shapes in an attempt to escape, but Menelaus perservered, refusing to let go. Finally Proteus, unable to get free, agreed to answer Menelaus’ questions truthfully. He described the sacrifices necessary to appease the gods and gain safe passage across the sea, as well as revealing that the gods would transport Menelaus to Elysium at the end of his mortal life. Menelaus eventually returned safely to Lacedaemon, where he and Helen apparently settled back into happily married life.
Priam Priam was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son of Laomedon. Modern scholars derive his name from the Luwian compound Priya-muwa-, which means “exceptionally courageous” He unsuccessfully defended his city during the Trojan War, at the end of which Troy was sacked a second time and was finally destroyed. During the Trojan War, Priam’s son Hector was killed by the Greek hero Achilles. In one of the most moving scenes of the Iliad, Priam courageously entered the Greek camp by night and pleaded with Achilles to return Hector’s body for burial.
Priam himself was finally killed by Achilles’ son, Neoptolemus, upon an altar of Zeus in the center of Troy. Helen Helen of Troy also known as Helen of Sparta, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda (or Nemesis), step-daughter of King Tyndareus, wife of Menelaus and sister of Castor, Polydeuces and Clytemnestra. Her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War. Since Zeus visited Leda in the form of a swan, Helen was often presented as being born from an egg. She was reputed to be the most beautiful woman in the world. When Helen was still a child, she was abducted by Theseus.
Since she was not yet old enough to be married, he sent her to Aphidnae and left her in the care of his mother, Aethra. The Dioscuri rescued her and returned her to her home in Lacedaemon, taking Aethra prisoner at the same time. When Helen reached marriageable age, all the greatest men in Greece courted her. Her mother’s husband, King Tyndareos of Lacedaemon, was concerned about the trouble that might be caused by the disappointed suitors. Acting on the advice of Odysseus, he got all the suitors to swear that they would support the marriage rights of the successful candidate. He then settled on Menelaus to be the husband of Helen.
She lived happily with Menelaus for a number of years, and bore him a daughter, Hermione. After a decade or so of married life, Helen was abducted by — or ran off with — Paris, the son of King Priam of Troy. Menelaus called on the other suitors to fulfill their oaths and help him get her back. As a result, the Greek leaders mustered the greatest army of the time, placed it under the command of Agamemnon, and set off to wage what became known as the Trojan War. After the fall of Troy, Menelaus took Helen back to Lacedaemon, where they lived an apparently happy married life once more.
After the end of their mortal existence, they continued to be together in Elysium. There were a number of different accounts of Helen’s relationship with Paris. In some, she was truly in love with him, although her sympathies were mostly with the Greeks who beseiged Troy. In others, she was a beautiful and wanton woman who brought disaster upon those around her. In still other accounts, she never went to Troy at all: Hermes, acting on Zeus’s orders, spirited her away to Egypt and fashioned a phantom out of clouds to accompany Paris; the real Helen was reunited with Menelaus after the Trojan War.
Hector Hector, was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. As the first-born son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, a descendant of Dardanus, who lived under Mount Ida, and of Tros, the founder of Troy, he was a prince of the royal house and the heir apparent to his father’s throne. He was married to Andromache, with whom he had an infant son, Scamandrius (whom the people of Troy called Astyanax). He acts as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defense of Troy, killing 31 Greek fighters in all.
Hector was the mightiest warrior on the side of Troy during the Trojan War, and he led many of the attacks against the Greek troops. He and Ajax fought to a draw in single combat, and he killed Patroclus, the close friend and companion of Achilles. He was eventually killed by Achilles, who was eager to avenge Patroclus’ death. Achilles then desecrated Hector’s corpse by dragging it behind his chariot before the walls of Troy, and refused to give up the body for burial. Achilles only allowed the body to receive funeral rites after King Priam came to his tent to plead for its return in person.
Agamemnon Agamemnon was the son of king Atreus and queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra as well the father of Iphigenia, Electra, Orestes and Chrysothemis. Mythical legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area. When Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was abducted by Paris of Troy, Agamemnon commanded the united Greek armed forces in the ensuing Trojan War. When the Greeks sailed for Troy, their fleet was trapped by unfavorable winds at Aulis.
The seer Calchas revealed that their misfortune was due to Agamemnon, who had boasted that he equalled Artemis in hunting; the winds would only change if Agamemnon’s daughter Iphigenia was sacrificed. Agamemnon reluctantly agreed to the sacrifice, but Artemis herself whisked Iphigenia away from the altar and substituted a deer in her place. During the seige of Troy, Agamemnon offended the greatest of the Greek warriors, Achilles, when he took the girl Briseis from him. Achilles’ anger with Agamemnon furnished the mainspring of the plot in the Iliad.
After the sack of Troy, Agamemnon acquired Cassandra, the daughter of King Priam, as his concubine, and took her home with him to Greece. Agamemnon had an unhappy homecoming. He was either blown off course and landed in the country of Aegisthos, or he came home to his own land to find Aegisthus waiting for him. In either case, Aegisthus had become the lover of Clytemnestra, and the two together murdered Agamemnon and Cassandra shortly after their arrival. Aegisthus and Clytemnestra then ruled Agamemnon’s kingdom, but were eventually killed by Agamemnon’s son, Orestes (or by Orestes and Electra in some accounts).
The homecoming of Agamemnon and its aftermath were favorite subjects for Greek tragedy. Achilles Achilles was a Greek hero of the Trojan War, the central character and the greatest warrior of Homer’s Iliad. Later legends (beginning with a poem by Statius in the 1st century AD) state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel. As he died because of a small wound on his heel, the term Achilles’ heel has come to mean one’s point of weakness When Achilles was a boy, the seer Calchas prophesied that the city of Troy could not be taken without his help.
Thetis knew that, if her son went to Troy, he would die an early death, so she sent him to the court of Lycomedes, in Scyros; there he was hidden, disguised as a young girl. During his stay he had an affair with Lycomedes’ daughter, Deidameia, and she had a son, Pyrrhus (or Neoptolemus), by him. Achilles’ disguise was finally penetrated by Odysseus, who placed arms and armor amidst a display of women’s finery and seized upon Achilles when he was the only “maiden” to be fascinated by the swords and shields.
Achilles then went willingly with Odysseus to Troy, leading a host of his father’s Myrmidons and accompanied by his tutor Phoenix and his close friend Patroclus. At Troy, Achilles distinguished himself as an undefeatable warrior. Among his other exploits, he captured twenty-three towns in Trojan territory, including the town of Lyrnessos, where he took the woman Briseis as a war-prize. Later on Agamemnon, the leader of the Greeks, was forced by an oracle of Apollo to give up his own war-prize, the woman Chryseis, and took Briseis away from Achilles as compensation for his loss.
This action sparked the central plot of the Iliad, for Achilles became enraged and refused to fight for the Greeks any further. The war went badly, and the Greeks offered handsome reparations to their greatest warrior; Achilles still refused to fight in person, but he agreed to allow his friend Patroclus to fight in his place, wearing his armor. The next day Patroclus was killed and stripped of the armor by the Trojan hero Hector, who mistook him for Achilles. Achilles was overwhelmed with grief for his friend and rage at Hector.
His mother obtained magnificent new armor for him from Hephaestus, and he returned to the fighting and killed Hector. He desecrated the body, dragging it behind his chariot before the walls of Troy, and refused to allow it to receive funeral rites. When Priam, the king of Troy and Hector’s father, came secretly into the Greek camp to plead for the body, Achilles finally relented; in one of the most moving scenes of the Iliad, he received Priam graciously and allowed him to take the body away. After the death of Hector, Achilles’ days were numbered.
He continued fighting heroically, killing many of the Trojans and their allies, including Memnon and the Amazon warrior Penthesilia. Finally Priam’s son Paris (or Alexander), aided by Apollo, wounded Achilles in the heel with an arrow; Achilles died of the wound. After his death, it was decided to award Achilles’ divinely-wrought armor to the bravest of the Greeks. Odysseus and Ajax competed for the prize, with each man making a speech explaining why he deserved the honor; Odysseus won, and Ajax then went mad and committed suicide.
During his lifetime, Achilles is also said to have had a number of romantic episodes. He reportedly fell in love with Penthesilia, the Amazon maiden whom he killed in battle, and it is claimed that he married Medea. Patroclus Patroclus, or Patroklos (Ancient Greek: ??t?????? Patroklos “glory of the father”), was the son of Menoetius, grandson of Actor, King of Opus, and was Achilles’ beloved comrade and brother-in-arms. he grew up with Achilles and became his closest friend.
He followed Achilles to Troy as his brother-in-arms, and when Achilles refused to fight in order to annoy Agamemnon, Patroclus appeared in Achilles’ armor at the head of the myrmidons and was slain by Hector. This made Achilles so angry, that he refused to rest until he had killed Hector, and honored his friend’s death by solemn burial rites. Qoute the positive and negative attitude of Achilles and Agamemnon Achilles Positive reserved and thoughtful man Achilles is a semi-god because his mom, Thetis, is a goddess and his father, Peleus, is a mortal Brave Negative uthless and unstoppable killing force bloodthirsty warrior Agamemnon Positive Brave Negative narrow minded attitude 1. What was the cause of the conflict between the greek and trojans Eris, who was associated with discord, was not invited, and decided to instigated conflict because of her own anger. She threw an apple onto the table, and on the fruit she had written that it was to be given to the fairest of the goddesses.
2. After Reviewing/seeing the movie Helen of Troy, can you say that man is ensared with his own lustfulness? Man is very weak when it becomes to temptaions specially to woman. . Can you also say that a woman is cause of man’s failure? why? Somtimes beacause it depends on the situation. Sometimes you have to give up something for the one you love. Sometimes because if you are trying to protect the woman you love you will do anything to protect her. 4. What aspect of human nature is manifested by the gods ; godesses in the story? Like us human they experience pain and failure in life . They know how to love and be angry to others like us. 5. What are the flaws that in the Filipino character traits that cause them failure in life?
The traits that cause us failure in life is the “bahala na” attitude. We should be more responsible specially to our future plans. Adventures of Odysseus First, they arrive at Ismarus, the land of the Cicones. They sack the city, killing the men and taking the women and treasure as bounty. They are later attacked by the Cicones. Second, They arrive in the Land of the Lotus-eaters. Here, his men eat lotus flowers. The flowers cause the men to lose their desire to return home, so Odysseus must force them back to the ship.
Third, at the Cyclops’ cave, his men escape being eaten only by Odysseus blinding the one-eyed Polyphemus (son of Poseidon). He does so by claiming that his name is “No One. ” When Polyphemus screams, he says that “No One” is attacking him, so his fellow cyclopes do not come to his rescue. As a result, Poseidon threatens Odysseus with much suffering and the ultimate loss of his men. Fourth, King Aeolus gives Odysseus and his men a place to stay for about a month. Upon their departure, Aeolus puts winds in a bag and gives them to Odysseus, instructing him not to open it.
The crew get close to Ithaca, but while Odysseus sleeps, they open the bag of winds and are flown back towards Aeolia. Fifth, at the Land of the Laestrygens, giant cannibals eat all but one of Odysseus’ ships. Sixth, at Aeaea, the enchantress Circe turns Odysseus’ scouting party into pigs. But Hermes, the messenger of the gods, gives Odysseus an herb against a similar fate. Odysseus sleeps with Circe and convinces her to turn the pigs back into men. She does so, but only after they have stayed on her island for a year.
She tells Odysseus that he must go see Tiresias in the Underworld before continuing his journey. Seventh, Odysseus meets with the blind prophet Tiresias in the Underworld. He encounters lost family and friends. Tiresias warns him of the dangers that lie ahead. Eighth, Odysseus and his men sail past the Sirens, who sing songs to lure passing crews and ships to their deaths. Odysseus orders his men to fill their ears with wax and to tie him to the mast of the ship, so that he may hear the songs but will not be able to succumb to their seduction.
Ninth, Odysseus must choose between sailing by either Scylla, a six-headed monster, or Charybdis, a giant whirlpool. Taking Circe’s advice, he sails by Scylla, who devours only six of his men and allows them to pass. Tenth, They go to Thrinacia, the home of the sacred cattle. Before docking the ship, he forces his men to swear an oath forbidding them from eating the cattle. However, after their food supply depletes, the men begin to kill and eat the sacred cattle. Angered, the gods punish Odysseus and his men.
After this adventure, Odysseus is the last man standing and must float away on the branch of a fig tree (his men and ship were all destroyed by the gods). Eleventh, Odysseus goes to Ogygia, home of Calypso. She keeps him captive for seven years. She gives him a raft but it is soon destroyed by Poseidon, who is still angry with him because of the death of his cyclops son. Twelfth, Odysseus floats to Scheria, where he is taken in by the princess and king. He tells them his story and they agree to help him by providing him with one of their best ships to return to Ithaca.